But these accounts are mere descriptions at best and not scientific theories. Social constructionist accounts generate no hypotheses about sexual orientation and are not subject to systematic testing. So why should we take their claims seriously?
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Social constructionism and postmodernist theory question the very validity of empirical science in the first place. That makes it no better than climate science denial. Change is widely used to argue against biological explanations. This is false because it is our biology that allows us to learn, respond to socialisation, and helps generate our culture.
These DNA differences may be linked to having same-sex partners | Science News
So showing evidence of change is not an argument against biology. There is indeed some fluidity in sexuality over time, predominantly among women. People may change the identity labels they use and who they have sex with but sexual attractions seem stable over time. Remember, sexual orientation is a pattern of desire, not of behaviour or sexual acts per se. It is not a simple act of will or a performance.
We fall in love with men or women because we have gay, straight, or bisexual orientations and not because of choice.
They worry more about this than the consequences of choice or environmental explanations, which are not without risk either. But clearly none of the direst predictions have materialised. Sexual minority identities have not been medicalised nor has there been any genetic testing. So should the causes of sexuality influence how we view sexual minority identities?
The causes of a trait should not influence how we see it. Hodges required all 50 states to recognize same-sex marriage. After Massachusetts legalized same-sex marriage in , mental health visits dropped significantly for gay men across the state. Other states that followed suit saw a 7 percent reduction in suicide attempts among L. Nationwide, legalization of same-sex marriage is linked to increases in the likelihood that gay men have health insurance and a regular doctor to see. By contrast, in states that passed same-sex marriage bans in and , L.
No such increase was found in neighboring states that did not pass bans.
Sometimes health happens in the hospital room. Sometimes it happens in a courtroom. One study found a 46 percent increase in the proportion of sexual minorities reporting depression, anxiety and other emotional problems in states that passed denial-of-service laws. Again, no increase was observed in states without these laws.
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Publicly gay politicians have attained numerous government posts, even in countries that had sodomy laws in their recent past. LGBT movements are opposed by a variety of individuals and organizations. Some social conservatives believe that all sexual relationships with people other than an opposite-sex spouse undermine the traditional family  and that children should be reared in homes with both a father and a mother. Policies and attitudes toward gay and lesbian military personnel vary widely around the world.
Some countries allow gay men, lesbians, and bisexual people to serve openly and have granted them the same rights and privileges as their heterosexual counterparts. Many countries neither ban nor support LGB service members. A few countries continue to ban homosexual personnel outright. Most Western military forces have removed policies excluding sexual minority members. Of the 26 countries that participate militarily in NATO , more than 20 permit openly gay, lesbian and bisexual people to serve.
The other two generally do not: China bans gay and lesbian people outright, Russia excludes all gay and lesbian people during peacetime but allows some gay men to serve in wartime see below.
Israel is the only country in the Middle East region that allows openly LGB people to serve in the military. While the question of homosexuality in the military has been highly politicized in the United States, it is not necessarily so in many countries. Generally speaking, sexuality in these cultures is considered a more personal aspect of one's identity than it is in the United States. According to American Psychological Association , empirical evidence fails to show that sexual orientation is germane to any aspect of military effectiveness including unit cohesion , morale, recruitment and retention.
Societal acceptance of non-heterosexual orientations such as homosexuality is lowest in Asian and African countries, and is highest in Europe, Australia, and the Americas. Western society has become increasingly accepting of homosexuality since the s. In , Professor Amy Adamczyk contended that these cross-national differences in acceptance can be largely explained by three factors: The institution of marriage offers social, psychological, and health benefits that are denied to same-sex couples.
By denying same-sex couples the right to marry, the state reinforces and perpetuates the stigma historically associated with homosexuality. Homosexuality remains stigmatized, and this stigma has negative consequences. California's prohibition on marriage for same-sex couples reflects and reinforces this stigma". They concluded: Though the relationship between homosexuality and religion is complex, current authoritative bodies and doctrines of the world's largest religions view homosexual behaviour negatively.
DNA differences are linked to having same-sex sexual partners
This can range from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, to explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices among adherents and actively opposing social acceptance of homosexuality. Some teach that homosexual desire itself is sinful,  others state that only the sexual act is a sin,  others are completely accepting of gays and lesbians ,  while some encourage homosexuality. On the other hand, voices exist within many of these religions that view homosexuality more positively, and liberal religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages. Some view same-sex love and sexuality as sacred, and a mythology of same-sex love can be found around the world.
Gay bullying can be the verbal or physical abuse against a person who is perceived by the aggressor to be lesbian , gay , bisexual or transgender, including persons who are actually heterosexual or of non-specific or unknown sexual orientation. In the US, teenage students heard anti-gay slurs such as "homo", "faggot" and "sissy" about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutes, according to a study by Mental Health America formerly National Mental Health Association.
rarimibam.tk In many cultures, homosexual people are frequently subject to prejudice and discrimination. These attitudes tend to be due to forms of homophobia and heterosexism negative attitudes , bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships.
Heterosexism can include the presumption that everyone is heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the norm and therefore superior. Homophobia is a fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexual people. It manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others.
When such attitudes manifest as crimes they are often called hate crimes and gay bashing.
Negative stereotypes characterize LGB people as less romantically stable, more promiscuous and more likely to abuse children, but there is no scientific basis to such assertions. Gay men and lesbians form stable, committed relationships that are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential respects. LGBT people, especially lesbians, may become the victims of " corrective rape ", a violent crime with the supposed aim of making them heterosexual.
In certain parts of the world, LGBT people are also at risk of " honor killings " perpetrated by their families or relatives. Homosexual and bisexual behaviors occur in a number of other animal species. Such behaviors include sexual activity , courtship , affection , pair bonding , and parenting ,  and are widespread; a review by researcher Bruce Bagemihl shows that homosexual behavior has been documented in about species, ranging from primates to gut worms.
The motivations for and implications of these behaviors have yet to be fully understood, since most species have yet to be fully studied. A review paper by N. Bailey and Marlene Zuk looking into studies of same-sex sexual behaviour in animals challenges the view that such behaviour lowers reproductive success, citing several hypotheses about how same-sex sexual behavior might be adaptive; these hypotheses vary greatly among different species. Bailey and Zuk also suggest future research needs to look into evolutionary consequences of same-sex sexual behaviour, rather than only looking into origins of such behaviour.
LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about homosexuality in humans. For homosexuality in other animals, see Homosexual behavior in animals. Sexual orientation. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. Main article: Terminology of homosexuality. Main articles: See also: Homosexuality in ancient Egypt. Homosexuality in ancient Peru. Further information: Judaism and sexual orientation and Homosexuality in the bible.
Sexual orientation identity and Sexual fluidity. Same-sex relationship. Coming out.